Orodental Changes Associated with Hepatic Disorders and it’s Clinicopathological Implications
Background: Hepatic complex can be vulnerable to numerous diseases ascribed to the intake of few drugs, alcohol, or infections which manifests itself in oral cavity.
Materials and Methods: The patients diagnosed as acute or chronic liver disease by clinical examination, liver function tests, and morphological examination which was selected. Detailed dental and oral examination was done and manifestations such as the presence of gingival bleeding, oral lichen planus, xerostomia, sialadenitis, stomatitis, periodontal disease, and others were noted. The data were then subjected to statistical analysis.
Results: Jaundice due to viral hepatitis (44.7%), alcoholic liver diseases (28%), alcoholic cirrhosis (18.7%), cirrhosis of liver (16%), hepatomegaly (14.7%), hepatic carcinoma (7.3%), and hepatitis B (6%) were the various liver disorders encountered. On oral examination, a significantly higher number of study subjects were detected with one or more oral abnormalities when compared to subjects (P ≤ 0.05). Oral manifestations include periodontitis, halitosis, xerostomia, bald tongue, fissured tongue, hyperpigmentation, candidiasis, and oral lichen planus.
Conclusion: The complex mechanism of liver and its susceptibility to a variety of dysfunction can not only have systemic but also many oral manifestations.
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