INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC STUDY http://galaxyjeevandhara.com/index.php/ijss <p><strong><span style="color: #5040ae;">SCOPE OF JOURNAL</span><br><br><span style="color: #2a2a2a;">-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; International Journal of Scientific Study (IJSS) is an open-access, freely accessible, online monthly journal publishing research articles after full peer review and aims to publish scientifically sound research articles. Journal publishes articles of&nbsp;</span>all specialties.<br><br><span style="color: #2a2a2a;">-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; IJSS tries to inform its readers about latest research developments and key issues from all disciplines. All papers published in the IJSS are subject to rigorous peer review.</span><br></strong><br><br><strong><span style="color: #5040ae;">SALIENT FEATURES:</span><br><br><span style="color: #2a2a2a;">-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Includes all specialties.</span><br><br><span style="color: #2a2a2a;">-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Double Blind Peer Review System</span><br><br><span style="color: #2a2a2a;">-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Monthly publication - 12 issues per year. &nbsp;(IJSS previously published journal on quarterly basis from April – December 2013. Then from January 2014 onwards it was published on monthly basis).</span><br><br><span style="color: #2a2a2a;">-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Free full text availability of articles in PDF format.</span><br><br><span style="color: #2a2a2a;">-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Email notifications on new issue release</span><br><br><span style="color: #2a2a2a;">-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Best Advisory &amp; Reviewer Board. Legends associated with IJSS team.</span><br><br><span style="color: #2a2a2a;">-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; IJSS Team comprises Editorial board members, International ambassadors, Members from different part of globe.</span><br><br><span style="color: #2a2a2a;">-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Entire Issue/Journal can be downloaded for free from website.</span><br><br><br><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="color: #5040ae;">PEER REVIEW SYSTEM</span><br><br>-&nbsp;Each article&nbsp;submitted to us will be reviewed by 2-3 reviewers. Journal follows Double Blind Peer Review System.&nbsp;All manu­scripts will be acknowledged upon pre­senting to the Jour­nal office, provided that all stated requirements are met. The manu­script is sent to two or more re­view­ers. The whole re­view proc­ess depends on re­ceiv­ing referees' comments and revising the manu­scripts based on these comments to the author. On receipt of the re­vised article from the au­thor, and after fi­nal ap­proving by refe­rees, the letter of ac­cep­tance is issued to the author. Authors have the right to communicate to the editor if they do not wish their manu­script to be reviewed by a par­ticular reviewer be­cause of potential con­flicts of inter­est. No article is rejected unless nega­tive comments are re­ceived from at least two re­viewers.&nbsp;<br><br><br><span style="color: #5040ae;">OPEN ACCESS POLICY</span><br><br>This journal provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge.&nbsp;<br><br><span style="color: #5040ae;">COPYRIGHT NOTICE</span><br><br><span style="color: #2a2a2a;">Accepted manuscripts become the perma­nent prop­erty of the Journal and&nbsp;may&nbsp;not be repro­duced, in whole or in part, with­out the writ­ten permis­sion of the Editor.&nbsp;</span><br><br><br><span style="color: #5040ae;">PRIVACY STATEMENT</span><br><br>The names and email addresses entered in this journal site will be used exclusively for the stated purposes of this journal and will not be made available for any other purpose or to any other party.</span></strong></p> en-US eicijss@gmail.com (International Journal of Scientific Study (IJSS)) Wed, 08 Sep 2021 06:24:50 +0000 OJS 3.1.2.1 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Study of Functional and Radiological Outcome of Midshaft Clavicle Fractures Managed Operatively With Plating http://galaxyjeevandhara.com/index.php/ijss/article/view/1788 <p>ntroduction: Clavicle is one of the commonly fractured bones. Shortcomings of conservative treatment are non-cosmetic<br>bump in addition to non-union in few cases. Shortcomings of operative treatment are hypertrophic scar and hardware-related<br>issues in addition to surgical site infection possibility. Hence, we decided to carry out prospective follow-up study.<br>Materials and Methods: A prospective follow-up study was done in 57 consecutive patients from February 2016 to January<br>2017 at MIMER Medical College, Talegaon Dabhade. Patients were operated with precontoured 3.5 mm dynamic compression<br>plate over superior aspect of clavicle. Patients were followed up at 2, 4, 6, 12, and 24 weeks after operation.<br>Results: In our study, mean time for radiological union was 39.4 days only with operative treatment. In our study, only there was<br>only one case of non-union of 51 patients were present (&lt;2%). Overall, satisfaction rate after operative treatment was quite high<br>in our study. There were hardware problems in 10 cases of 51 patients, that is, about 19.60% of cases. These included screw<br>loosening (4 cases) and hardware prominence in 6 cases (i.e. 11.76%). Hypertrophic scar in 2 cases (3.92%) and infection in<br>1 case (1.96%) were seen. Range of motion of shoulder was near normal.<br>Conclusion: Open reduction and internal fixation of midshaft clavicle fractures give good functional and radiological outcomes<br>with high patient satisfaction rate without any major complication.</p> Swapnil Bhise, Ashok Ohatker, Santosh Borka, Siddheshwar Thosar, Nitin Kanode, Sameer Desai Copyright (c) 2018 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC STUDY http://galaxyjeevandhara.com/index.php/ijss/article/view/1788 Tue, 12 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Effects of Oral Submucous Fibrosis on Auditory Tube Function: A Case–control Study http://galaxyjeevandhara.com/index.php/ijss/article/view/1790 <p>Background: Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is a precancerous condition, recognized as collagen disease with resemblance<br>to localized scleroderma. The study is to analyze the middle ear pressure of OSMF patients of various grades of disease.<br>Materials and Methods: A total of 40 OSMF patients (80 ears) and 40 healthy controls (80 ears) were analyzed for middle ear<br>pressure by the use of impedance audiometry.<br>Results: The impedance audiometry test shows statistically significant difference in middle ear pressure of OSMF patients<br>and control.<br>Conclusion: The study suggests that the middle ear pressure may be affected by disease and its progression.</p> Ambrish Kumar Copyright (c) 2018 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC STUDY http://galaxyjeevandhara.com/index.php/ijss/article/view/1790 Wed, 13 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0000 A Clinical Study on Risk Factors for Recurrent Pulmonary Tuberculosis – a Hospital-Based Study http://galaxyjeevandhara.com/index.php/ijss/article/view/1791 <p>Aim of the Study: The aim of this study was to understand and identify risk factors in recurrent cases of pulmonary tuberculosis<br>(TB).<br>Materials and Methods: A total of 54 patients attending tertiary teaching hospital with recurrent pulmonary TB were included in<br>this study. Patients who were earlier cured using a four-drug treatment regimen of rifampicin, isoniazid, and pyrazinamide (RHZ)<br>were included in this study. The risk factors studied were age, gender, race, duration of symptoms, lesion cavitation, extent of<br>disease, diabetes mellitus (DM), alcoholism, HIV infection, delayed negative sputum conversion, treatment compliance, and<br>medication doses. To detect recurrence, the patients were monitored for 7.7 ± 2.0 years after cure. Data were analyzed using<br>the student’s t-test and the Chi-square test.<br>Observations and Results: A total of 54 patients with symptoms of recurrence of pulmonary TB were included in this study.<br>The mean age was 38.12 ± 4.60 years. There were 34 (62.96%) males and 21 (38.88%) females. The male-to-female ratio was<br>1.61:1. The mean age among the males was 40.09 ± 5.62, and it was 34.12 ± 3.75 years. The mean duration of the symptoms<br>was 82.45 ± 7.15 (12–238) days. There were 19 (35.18%) patients who were chronic alcoholics. The number of patients who<br>showed cavity in their X-ray lung investigation was 46/54 (85.18%). The noncompliance among the diabetic patients was<br>2/54 (3.70%) with the total number of patients with DM was 20/54 (37.03%). Among the 54 patients, 31/54 (57.40%) patients<br>were tested for HIV screening; among them, 07/31 (22.58%) tested positive for HIV. There were 07/31 (22.58%) positive HIV<br>test patients in the recurrence group, and 09.01% HIV positive incidence in the nonrecurrence group which was statistically<br>significant (P &lt; 0.05).<br>Conclusions: Recurrence of TB was more common in HIV-positive patients, and in patients, who did not comply with the selfadministered treatment (RHZ regimen). Patients presenting at least one of these risk factors can benefit from the implementation<br>of a posttreatment surveillance system for early detection of recurrence. An alternative to prevent noncompliance with TB<br>treatment would be the use of supervised treatment.</p> Sabir Cholas, Iftekhar Ahmed Nazeer Copyright (c) 2018 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC STUDY http://galaxyjeevandhara.com/index.php/ijss/article/view/1791 Sun, 13 May 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Hernia of Morgagni in Adults: Atypical Presentations http://galaxyjeevandhara.com/index.php/ijss/article/view/1792 <p>Background: Foramen of Morgagni hernias is rare diaphragmatic hernias, usually occurring on the right side and located<br>in the anterior mediastinum because of the retrosternal location of the foramen of Morgagni.Adult patients diagnosed with a<br>foramen of Morgagni hernia are usually asymptomatic. Although most remain asymptomatic, some patients develop symptoms<br>of dyspnea, cough, sternal pain, and bowel obstruction depending on the extent of the hernia. The hernia usually contains<br>omentum, bowel (colon), and sometimes liver.<br>Materials and Methods: We present three adult patients one presenting with dyspnea, the second presenting with acute<br>intestinal obstruction, and the third patient was diagnosed to have the hernia on routine investigations.<br>Conclusion: Clinical awareness of atypical presentations and diagnostic difficulties might help in prompt diagnosis and early<br>surgical treatment of this otherwise potentially fatal disease.</p> K Y Santosh Kumar, Milind H Iddalagi Copyright (c) 2018 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC STUDY http://galaxyjeevandhara.com/index.php/ijss/article/view/1792 Wed, 13 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Retrospective Study of Surgical Site Infection in an Urban Centre of Eastern India http://galaxyjeevandhara.com/index.php/ijss/article/view/1793 <p>Background: In compromised operation room and ward environment does extended prophylactic antibiotic for beyond 24 h<br>do better for preventing surgical site infection (SSI)?<br>Materials and Methods: In this retrospective transverse cross-sectional study 899 (major = 699 and minor = 230) post-operated<br>patients are investigated for the incidence of infection. The patient population is distributed in trauma, arthroplasties, and others<br>as 508, 106, and 285, respectively.<br>Results: In major procedures infection developed as superficial incisional, deep incisional, and deep organ space are 4.33%,<br>1.20%, and 1.05%, respectively, and average total being 6.93%. In minor procedure, the values are 2.17%, 0.43%, and 2.70%.<br>The incidence of SSI in arthroplasties was 11 (10.38%). Minimum period for identification for SSI 6 days in 11 cases and as late<br>as 53 days in 1 case. Organism prevalence was Staphylococcus aureus 51.92% (MRSA = 51.85%), Staphylococcus epidermidis<br>in 8, Streptococcus in 12, Escherichia coli in 2, Klebsiala in 1, and Pseudomonas in 2 cases. Combining debridement and<br>suitable antibiotics SSIs controlled in 27 cases and failed in 25 cases.<br>Conclusion: Prolonged prophylactic antibiotic use cannot reduce the incidence of SSI. It makes delay in identification of SSI<br>leading to difficulties in controlling it. Prophylactic antibiotic is never an alternative for the antiseptic surgical protocol.</p> Amarendra Nath Roy, Amiya Kumar Bera, Jitendra Nath Pal, Subhendu Das, Wasim Bari, Ujjal Bhakat Copyright (c) 2018 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC STUDY http://galaxyjeevandhara.com/index.php/ijss/article/view/1793 Wed, 13 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Relative Prevalence of Vitamin B12 and Folic Acid in Megaloblastic Anemia and Its Clinical – etiological Profile in a Tertiary Care Center http://galaxyjeevandhara.com/index.php/ijss/article/view/1794 <p>Background: Megaloblastic anemia (MA) causes substantial morbidity in patients with anemia and increasing number of MA<br>is seen in clinical practice over the past 10–15 years.<br>Objectives: The objectives of the study were to study the relative prevalence of Vitamin B12 and folic acid (FA) in MA and its<br>clinical–etiological profile.<br>Methods: This is a cross-sectional observational study, conducted in the Department of Medicine, PGIMER and Dr. Ram Manohar<br>Lohia Hospital, New Delhi, with patients of MA in whom detailed history; physical examination and nutritional assessment were<br>recorded. Cobalamin and FA assays were done. Diagnosis of MA was confirmed by bone marrow aspiration and patients were<br>further investigated to find out its cause.<br>Results: Majority of studied patients (46%) were in age group 22–40 years with male: female ratio of 2.6:1. Majority cases (95%)<br>were from Hindu religion compared to Muslims (5%). The symptoms corresponding to anemia were the most common presentation<br>of the patient. Fatigueness was present in 92%, exertional dyspnea and palpitation were the presenting complaints in 59% and 19%<br>cases, respectively. Decrease appetite (80%), weight loss (54.6%), diarrhea (16%), mouth ulcer (14%), and paresthesias (11%)<br>were the other common presenting symptoms. Pallor (96%) was most common finding in the study group. Skin hyperpigmentation<br>was present in 48% and oral ulcer in 26% of patients. 54% of the participants had cobalamin deficiency, and 26% had FA deficiency,<br>and 21% had both. 37% of cases had the nutritional background. Among non-nutritional etiology most frequently associated factors<br>were alcohol and alcoholic liver disease (27%), and drugs (13%) followed by chronic infections and malabsorption.<br>Conclusion: The pathological conditions associated with the MA are much diverse. Proper diagnostic workup is essential<br>before the use of hematinics and blood transfusion in all anemic patients.</p> Praphull Deepankar1, Rakesh Roshan, Harish Kumar Gupta, Gurdeep Buxi Copyright (c) 2018 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC STUDY http://galaxyjeevandhara.com/index.php/ijss/article/view/1794 Thu, 14 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Confers Additional Hormonal Level Abnormalities: A Study in Tertiary Care Hospital on Bengali Obese Women http://galaxyjeevandhara.com/index.php/ijss/article/view/1795 <p>Introduction: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most frequently encountered endocrine disorders in women of reproductive<br>age. Adiposity plays a crucial role in PCOS and influences the clinical and endocrine features in many women with this condition.<br>Purpose: This aim of the study was to compare hormonal abnormalities in women with obese Bengali PCOS cases attending<br>in a government hospital with body mass index (BMI) matched women without PCOS in West Bengal.<br>Methods: A total of 75 obese PCOS patients (ethnic Bengali) were recruited and 75 BMI matched control were taken, and<br>PCOS was diagnosis according to the Rotterdam criteria (2003). Serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone<br>(LH), FSH/LH ratio, plasma glucose, insulin glucose/insulin ratio, and serum total testosterone were measured.<br>Results: Study serum LH, LH/FSH ratio, serum fasting insulin, and serum total testosterone levels were higher, and serum<br>insulin/glucose ratio is lower than their obese BMI-matched controls.<br>Conclusion: Polycystic ovary syndrome confers additional hormonal level abnormalities in Bengali obese PCOS women in West Bengal.</p> Md. Sadique Mallick, Serina Khatun Copyright (c) 2018 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC STUDY http://galaxyjeevandhara.com/index.php/ijss/article/view/1795 Thu, 14 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Level of High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein Assay to Evaluate Risk in Follow-Up Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome http://galaxyjeevandhara.com/index.php/ijss/article/view/1796 <p>Introduction: Among currently recognized inflammatory markers numbers of considerations favor high-sensitivity C-reactive<br>protein (Hs-CRP) as a potentially useful predictor of prevalence and incidence of cardiovascular diseases. Clinical interest<br>in these markers has also focused on their potential utility in predicting future cardiovascular events and thereby in patient’s<br>management.<br>Purpose of study: The purpose of the study was to determine the mean level of Hs-CRP assay in patients of acute coronary<br>syndromes and corelation of Hs-CRP with two or more major risk factors and to correlate the level of Hs-CRP and cardiac<br>events in patients of acute coronary syndromes during follow-up of a specified period of 6 months.<br>Materials and Methods: Present study had been carried out in the Department of Medicine, Gajra Raja Medical College<br>and associated Hospital, Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh, India, from January 2004 to September 2005. This was a prospective<br>observational study. The targeted populations were 30 cases with acute coronary syndromes of both sexes.<br>Results: The study was statistically insignificant in reference to various major cardiac events compared to various levels of HsCRP. ST elevation myocardial infarction (MI) was the most prevalent acute coronary syndrome. Most of the risk factors show<br>their association with the moderate risk level of Hs-CRP, i.e., 1.0–3.0 mg/L, followed by high-risk levels, i.e., &gt;3.0 mg/L, followed<br>by low-risk levels, i.e., &lt;1.0 mg/L. Post MI/angina was the major cardiac event that highest number of patients developed,<br>during the follow-up period of 6 months.<br>Conclusion: No statistically significant association of various risk factors with Hs-CRP was observed in patients of acute<br>coronary syndromes. No statistically significant association of Hs-CRP levels with major cardiac events was appreciable in<br>patients of acute coronary syndrome in a follow-up period of 6 months.</p> Himanshu Mathur, Jitendra Kumar Jatav Copyright (c) 2018 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC STUDY http://galaxyjeevandhara.com/index.php/ijss/article/view/1796 Thu, 14 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Amniotic Fluid Volume (q-AFV) Assessment for Intrauterine Growth Retardation in Hospital Settings http://galaxyjeevandhara.com/index.php/ijss/article/view/1797 <p>Background of the Study: Low amniotic fluid volume (AFV) observed to be a commonly associated finding with intrauterine<br>growth retardation (IUGR), so the present study was planned to study the association of low AFV (single deepest pocket [SDP]<br>&lt;2 cm) and IUGR.<br>Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in tertiary care hospital of Himachal Pradesh, India, among 100 mothers<br>with clinically suspected IUGR in 75 and normal growth in 25, which were followed up from 28 weeks of pregnancy till delivery.<br>Results: There is an insignificant odds ratio (OR: 3.7; 95.0% CI: 0.5–30.4) for insufficient AFV (SDP &lt;2 cm) and clinical IUGR.<br>There were four perinatal deaths in IUGR and none in normal group. Mean birth weight of baby was significantly more in normal<br>group (3.0 kg) as compared to IUGR group (2.2 kg) (P = 0.001). Newborn was more active at the time of birth in normal group<br>with average Apgar score of 7.2 in normal as compared to 5.9 in IUGR group (P = 0.025). In IUGR group, the Apgar score<br>increased significantly up to 8.8 once the assessment was made at 10 min (P = 0.000).<br>Conclusion: AFV assessment will help as a facilitating tool for decision-making for the management of pregnancy rather<br>substantiate itself as a sole tool with high predictive capacity.</p> Arti Chauhan Copyright (c) 2018 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC STUDY http://galaxyjeevandhara.com/index.php/ijss/article/view/1797 Thu, 14 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of Subject Response to Antipsychotics - Subjective Aspect and Related Clinical Correlates http://galaxyjeevandhara.com/index.php/ijss/article/view/1798 <p>Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the subjective response to antipsychotics in patients with schizophrenia and to assess<br>the related factors such as psychopathology, side effects, insight, and treatment variables.<br>Methodology: A total of 60 patients with schizophrenia were randomized to treatment with risperidone (n-30) or haloperidol<br>(n = 30) daily. Efficacy was assessed by the improvement of psychotic symptoms, measured on the positive and negative<br>syndrome scale. The safety and tolerability were evaluated with the extrapyramidal symptom rating scale, the UKU side effect<br>rating scale, and Insight and Treatment Attitude Questionnaire.<br>Results: Comparing haloperidol group and risperidone group for variables such as sex, age, duration of treatment, literacy level,<br>and drug-free duration before admission was not statistically significant. Hence, both groups are comparable. Haloperidol group<br>had the number of dysphoric patients (21), and risperidone group had only 8 patients who had dysphoria (Chi-square P &lt; 0.01).<br>In psychopathology, subjective response was more dysphoric when paranoid scores were high (significant two-tailed −0.00).<br>In the final assessment total, psychopathology scores were high if dysphoria is high and if psychopathology scores were low<br>and the dysphoria is also low (significant two-tailed −0.00). Dysphoria scores are high if insight is low, and dysphoria scores are<br>low if insight is good. Dysphoria scores increase with increasing side effects and decrease with decreasing insight (significant<br>two-tailed −0.00).<br>Conclusion: Subjective response to risperidone is better than haloperidol. If there is the initial dysphoric response, the treatment<br>response is reduced with low insight and high psychopathology in the dysphoric group.</p> V Geethaanjali, C Jayakrishnaveni Copyright (c) 2018 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC STUDY http://galaxyjeevandhara.com/index.php/ijss/article/view/1798 Thu, 14 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Imaging Characteristics of Focal Liver Lesions on Contrast-Enhanced Helical Computed Tomography http://galaxyjeevandhara.com/index.php/ijss/article/view/1799 <p>Introduction: The discovery of computed tomography (CT) by G.N. Hounsfield in 1972 has been a milestone in medical<br>diagnostic imaging as cross-sectional imaging took a step into diagnostic radiology. The use of contrast agents for CT of the<br>liver has been used since long back. However, the advent of multidetector helical CT has made the dream of multiphasic<br>imaging a reality. This has led to imaging the liver during the various phases of enhancement and helping in characterization<br>and detection of the lesions.<br>Material and methods: This prospective study was done in the Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging at Bhopal Medical<br>Centre, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India. Atotal of 100 patients who were referred to our department with strong clinical suspicion<br>of focal liver lesion and those diagnosed by ultrasonography underwent multiphasic contrast-enhanced CT evaluation of abdomen<br>using single-slice spiral CT scanner from March 2010 to May 2012.<br>Results: In our study, the majority of cases diagnosed were that of malignant lesions in 47% of cases. The other lesions<br>diagnosed were benign lesions in 34% of cases and inflammatory lesions in 19% of cases. Among the malignant lesions, the<br>most common diagnosis was that of metastases seen in 67% of cases. The next most common was hepatocellular carcinoma<br>(HCC) seen in 29% of cases.<br>Discussion: Contrast-enhanced multiphasic CT plays an indispensable role in the detection and characterization of focal<br>lesions of the liver. The aspects of the identified liver abnormalities influence the clinical and surgical decision-making. Benign<br>abnormalities such as cysts and hemangioma do not require treatment, but some benign cases require treatment such as FNH<br>and hepatocellular adenoma requires treatment in some cases. Malignant lesions arising from the liver such as HCC often need<br>treatment. Metastases may or may not be amenable to treatment.<br>Conclusion: The accuracy of contrast-enhanced multiphasic CT in detecting and characterizing focal liver lesions is high, and<br>it should be considered in the imaging workup of any patient with focal liver lesions. This helps in guiding further management<br>of these patients avoiding unnecessary investigations and workup for the diagnosis as there is a high incidence of benign<br>pathologies in the liver.</p> Sonika Rani, Purva Tripathi Copyright (c) 2018 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC STUDY http://galaxyjeevandhara.com/index.php/ijss/article/view/1799 Thu, 14 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Nasal Retrograde Intubation in Oromaxillofacial Surgery Patients with Limited Mouth Opening: A Cross-sectional Study http://galaxyjeevandhara.com/index.php/ijss/article/view/1800 <p>Introduction: Retrograde intubation is an alternative technique of securing definitive airway in the patients with limited mouth<br>opening (LMO) when blind nasal intubation fails, and fiber-optic bronchoscope is unavailable. Retrograde intubation in patients<br>with LMO &lt;2 cm through nasal route is an alternative method for airway management.<br>Materials and Methods: The procedure was performed on 36 patients requiring maxillofacial surgical procedures to increase<br>mouth opening. Indication for this technique was oral mucous fibrosis (OSMF; n = 12), temporomandibular joint (TMJ) ankylosis<br>(n = 8), mandibular fracture (n = 12), and derangement of TMJ (n = 4). All patients were examined for pre-operative interincisal<br>opening; during intubation through specific parameters and also post-operative findings were observed.<br>Results: The mean time was 5.6 min in successfully intubated patients. Eight patients had sore throat which resolved in few<br>days and two patients had subcutaneous emphysema managed conservatively. No other complications were detected.<br>Conclusion: Retrograde nasotracheal intubation is an effective and useful technique for airway management in LMO patients<br>with minimal risk.</p> Ambrish Kumar Copyright (c) 2018 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC STUDY http://galaxyjeevandhara.com/index.php/ijss/article/view/1800 Thu, 14 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Comparison between Two Regimens of Art in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Patients at Tertiary Care Art Centre Jabalpur: A Prospective Observational Study http://galaxyjeevandhara.com/index.php/ijss/article/view/1801 <p>Objective: The objective of the study was to assess the effectiveness of two regimens (Tenofovir + Lamivudine + Efavirenz<br>[TLE] and Zidovudine + Lamivudine + Nevirapine [ZLN]) on the basis of CD4<br>count changes among human immunodeficiency<br>virus (HIV) patients along with occurrence of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) by these regimens.<br>Materials and Methods: A prospective observational study with a sample size of 200, divided equally into two groups of 100<br>each jointly conducted in the Tertiary Care ART Centre Jabalpur, from April 2016 to June 2017. Group A contains TLE regimen,<br>and Group B contains ZLN regimen. Various ADRs were observed in both the groups.<br>Results: Most of the patients were male (124) in our study with a maximum incidence of HIV found among 21–40 years of age<br>group. The average increase in the CD4 count was significant only in GroupA (&lt;0.05). 83% and 93% patients of GroupsA and B,<br>show a total of 137 and 165 ADRs, respectively. Group A shows major central nervous system and gastrointestinal tract and<br>Group B shows mainly dermatology and hematological type of ADRs. Using Modified Hartwig and Siegel severity assessment<br>scale, we found that in Group A, ADR was mild to moderate in nature while in Group B, ADR was mainly moderate in nature.<br>Conclusion: It was concluded that Group A containing TLE regimen was more effective as their CD4 count was significantly<br>increase after a follow-up of 6-month treatment with least ADR and the patients who develop ADR was mainly mild in nature.</p> Rajkumari Bansal, Inder Dev Ashahiya Copyright (c) 2018 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC STUDY http://galaxyjeevandhara.com/index.php/ijss/article/view/1801 Thu, 14 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Serum Albumin and Uric Acid Estimation in Ischemic Heart Disease Patients http://galaxyjeevandhara.com/index.php/ijss/article/view/1802 <p>Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate serum uric acid and serum albumin levels in ischemic heart disease patients (IHD).<br>Materials and Methods: Around 60 persons were recruited for the study, with 30 patients diagnosed as IHD and 30 healthy<br>volunteers. Serum uric acid and serum albumin were estimated using Semi Auto Analyzer. Statistical analysis was performed<br>using SPSS version 16. The parameters were compared among two groups using independent t-test.<br>Results: Serum uric acid levels (P = 0.000) were increased significantly in Group II patients compared to those in Group I<br>controls. There was no significant difference in serum albumin levels among the two groups. Levels of serum albumin in Group I<br>and Group II are almost similar.<br>Conclusion: From this study, serum uric acid can be used to assess the prognosis of patients with IHD. Our study showed a<br>normal serum albumin levels in both the groups, but low serum albumin is associated with high mortality in general.<br>Clinical significance: Recent studies have provided evidence that uric acid may play a role in the progression of various diseases<br>including cardiovascular complications. As a result, the measurement of uric acid concentrations is now mandatory for the management<br>of those disease states. Low serum albumin level causes subclinical fluid overload in IHD patients leading to poor prognosis. Hence,<br>further studies have to be carried out to assess the association of quality of life in IHD patients and serum albumin levels.</p> P Kughapriya, J A Elanchezhian Copyright (c) 2018 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC STUDY http://galaxyjeevandhara.com/index.php/ijss/article/view/1802 Fri, 15 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Trends in Breast Feeding Practices among Mothers at a Tertiary Care Institute http://galaxyjeevandhara.com/index.php/ijss/article/view/1803 <p>Introduction: Breastfeeding is a natural and traditional infant feeding practice throughout the world. Appropriate feeding is<br>crucial for healthy growth and development. Hence, a study of infant feeding practice that is prevalent is essential to outline<br>trends of feeding practices before the formulation of any need-based program.<br>Aims and Objectives: The objectives of the study were to study the knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding breastfeeding,<br>its correlation with maternal factors and about the introduction of other milk and weaning foods.<br>Materials and Methods: Mothers of 500 infants and toddlers of ages 3 days to 3 years who were attending GRH, Madurai,<br>were included and provided with a standard questionnaire and results analyzed. Duration of the study was 1 year.<br>Results: In this study of 500 cases, 40% received antenatal advice. 12.6% mothers breastfed within 1 h while 34.2% breastfed<br>in &lt;6 h. 55.1% of the normally deliveredmothers and 4.1% of the cesarean sectioned mothers started breastfeeding within 6<br>h. 55.2% mothers administered prelacteal feds to their infants while 44.8% did not. 3/4th expressed their milk when the baby is<br>in NICU. Top feeds started by 63.5% by 4 months, 51% started bottle feeding by 3 months. Early weaning started by 10.54%<br>before 3 months of age mean duration of breastfeeding was 15 months. No correlation was found between the age, parity,<br>nutritional status and family income of the mothers, and breastfeeding practices. A significant correlation was found with the<br>employment status of the mothers.<br>Conclusion: Majority of mothers had good knowledge of the technique of breastfeeding, and only 4.6% did not show any<br>response. Employment was one of the reasons for the early introduction of bottle feeds. Expression of breast milk is not practiced<br>in this category of mothers due to lack of knowledge regarding the procedure.</p> K Ramya, P Murugalatha Copyright (c) 2018 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC STUDY http://galaxyjeevandhara.com/index.php/ijss/article/view/1803 Fri, 15 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Comparison of Management Strategies in Chronic Subdural Hematoma: A Retrospective Study http://galaxyjeevandhara.com/index.php/ijss/article/view/1804 <p>ntroduction: Chronic subdural hematoma is one of the most common diseases encountered in neurosurgical practice. Although<br>surgical drainage is an established treatment option for symptomatic patients, the ideal surgical approach remains controversial.<br>The superiority of one modality over the other remains to be established.<br>Aim: This study aims to compare burr hole tapping and craniotomy in the management of chronic subdural hematoma.<br>Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis of 100 cases of chronic subdural hematoma admitted in our institution was<br>done. The type of procedure, operative duration, post-operative stay, reoperation, post-operative Glasgow coma scale, and<br>mortality were analyzed using Chi-square test.<br>Results: The ideal procedure for each patient is shown based on the analysis of various parameters and their statistical<br>significance is interpreted.<br>Conclusion: The ideal surgical option for chronic subdural hematoma has been highlighted based on the studied parameters.<br>The best possible benefit to the patient has been elucidated.</p> S Senthilkumar, K Rajaraajan, G Rajasekaran Copyright (c) 2018 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC STUDY http://galaxyjeevandhara.com/index.php/ijss/article/view/1804 Fri, 15 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Role of Imaging Modalities in the Management of Urinary Tract Infection in Children http://galaxyjeevandhara.com/index.php/ijss/article/view/1805 <p>Background: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a common clinical condition in pediatric practice requiring special attention as congenital<br>anomalies of kidneys and collecting system is usually the causes of recurrence. American Academy of Pediatrics recommends children<br>with UTI should be investigated with voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG), ultrasonogram of urinary tract (renal ultrasound [RUS]), and<br>radionuclide imaging of kidney (dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scan) for diagnosing underlying urinary tract abnormalities.<br>Aim of the study: The aim of the study was to assess the role of routine RUS in the management of young children hospitalized<br>with uncomplicated febrile UTI.<br>Materials and Methods: A total of 120 children between 1 month and 12 years of age with the first episode of a confirmed<br>diagnosis of UTI were included in this prospective cross-sectional study. All the children were thoroughly investigated after<br>elicitation of history. Culture of urine, ultrasonogram (RUS) and radionuclide renal scan were obtained at the time of admission.<br>VCUG was performed after 6 weeks to look for vesicoureteric reflux. These tests are in addition to routine investigations before<br>and during follow-up of treatment.<br>Observations and Results: RUS was done in 120 cases, and 14 (11.66%) cases had abnormal findings. Hydroureteronephrosis<br>is seen in 8 cases (7%), cystitis in 4 cases (3%), pelvic-ureteric junction obstruction in 2 cases (1.8%). VCUG was done in 40 cases<br>(31 males and 9 females) and was abnormal in 12 (30%) cases. 4 (10%) and 2 (5%) of 40 cases had Grades 1–2 vesicoureteral<br>reflux (VUR) and Grades 3–4 VUR, respectively. 4 (13%) of 31 males and 2(22%) of 9 females who underwent VCUG had<br>evidence of VUR; this female to male ratio of 1.7:1 found was not significant statistically (P = 0.49). The sensitivity, specificity,<br>positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of RUS for detecting VUR were 20.7%, 87.33%, 26.33%, and 83.33%,<br>respectively [Table 1]. For the purpose of further analysis, the children were divided into three age groups: &lt;1 year (28 children<br>and 20/08 male/female), 1–5 years (60 children and 44/16 male/female), and 5–12 years (32 children and 12/20 male/female).<br>Conclusions: The present study question the yield of routine RUS in the management of young children with simple UTI. The study<br>concludes that RUS should only be performed in children in whom complications such as renal obstruction or abscess are suspected<br>based on an unfavorable clinical course, or in children in whom VUR has been found, to look for renal structure abnormalities.<br>Key words: , , ,&nbsp;</p> M S Vinodkumar, M Vishnu Mohan Copyright (c) 2018 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC STUDY http://galaxyjeevandhara.com/index.php/ijss/article/view/1805 Fri, 15 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Comparison of the Efficacy of Tamsulosin and Placebo in the Management of Acute Urinary Retention Secondary to Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Undergoing Trial without Catheter until Definitive Therapy http://galaxyjeevandhara.com/index.php/ijss/article/view/1806 <p>Introduction: Acute urinary retention (AUR) is one of the most significant, uncomfortable and inconvenient events in the natural history<br>of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The immediate treatment is bladder decompression using urethral or suprapubic catheterization.<br>Aim: In this study, the effect of tamsulosin has been evaluated in the temporary management of AUR by increasing the rate of<br>successful trial without catheter (TWOC) until definitive therapy.<br>Materials and Methods: This prospective randomized study was conducted in tamsulosin Group A/placebo Group B. Patients<br>with AUR after catheterization were given once daily dose of tamsulosin 0.4 mg for 4 days. Placebo group, patients with AUR<br>after catheterizations were given 4 days of vitamin tablets. Success criteria for TWOC; trial without the catheter is considered<br>successful if the patient passes urine more than 100 ml with a PVR of &lt;200 ml either in ultrasonography or actually measured<br>by inserting an interferential therapy.<br>Results: In Group A, the total success rate of TWOC is 59.5% and the failure rate is 40.5%. In Grade 1 prostate, 11 of 12 had<br>successful TWOC (91.66%) with tamsulosin. The success rate of TWOC in Group B is 32.4%, and TWOC is more successful<br>in patients with Grade 1 prostate (6 of 10).<br>Conclusion: Prostate size has the statistically significant influence on trial without the catheter. Patients with larger prostate<br>have more chances of failure in the trial without the catheter in both groups. However, tamsulosin increases the success rate<br>of trial without the catheter in patients with the larger prostate.</p> V Chandramohan, N Narayanamoorthy Copyright (c) 2018 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC STUDY http://galaxyjeevandhara.com/index.php/ijss/article/view/1806 Fri, 15 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0000 Comparison of the Efficacy of Tamsulosin and Placebo in the Management of Acute Urinary Retention Secondary to Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Undergoing Trial without Catheter until Definitive Therapy http://galaxyjeevandhara.com/index.php/ijss/article/view/1807 <p>ntroduction: Acute urinary retention (AUR) is one of the most significant, uncomfortable and inconvenient events in the natural history<br>of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The immediate treatment is bladder decompression using urethral or suprapubic catheterization.<br>Aim: In this study, the effect of tamsulosin has been evaluated in the temporary management of AUR by increasing the rate of<br>successful trial without catheter (TWOC) until definitive therapy.<br>Materials and Methods: This prospective randomized study was conducted in tamsulosin Group A/placebo Group B. Patients<br>with AUR after catheterization were given once daily dose of tamsulosin 0.4 mg for 4 days. Placebo group, patients with AUR<br>after catheterizations were given 4 days of vitamin tablets. Success criteria for TWOC; trial without the catheter is considered<br>successful if the patient passes urine more than 100 ml with a PVR of &lt;200 ml either in ultrasonography or actually measured<br>by inserting an interferential therapy.<br>Results: In Group A, the total success rate of TWOC is 59.5% and the failure rate is 40.5%. In Grade 1 prostate, 11 of 12 had<br>successful TWOC (91.66%) with tamsulosin. The success rate of TWOC in Group B is 32.4%, and TWOC is more successful<br>in patients with Grade 1 prostate (6 of 10).<br>Conclusion: Prostate size has the statistically significant influence on trial without the catheter. Patients with larger prostate<br>have more chances of failure in the trial without the catheter in both groups. However, tamsulosin increases the success rate<br>of trial without the catheter in patients with the larger prostate.</p> V Chandramohan, N Narayanamoorthy Copyright (c) 2018 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC STUDY http://galaxyjeevandhara.com/index.php/ijss/article/view/1807 Fri, 15 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0000 A Study of the Learning Approaches of Medical Students before and after Clinical Posting in a Medical College in South India http://galaxyjeevandhara.com/index.php/ijss/article/view/1808 <p>troduction: Students use either a deep or a surface learning approach focusing on understanding or memorizing, respectively.<br>Learning approaches vary depending on the learning environment, curricula followed and year of study.<br>Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the learning approaches of medical students before and after they start their clinical<br>posting.<br>Materials and Methods: The revised two-factor study process questionnaire (R-SPQ-2F)was administered to 93 second-year<br>medical students of Sri Muthukumaran Medical College Hospital and Research Institute aged 19–20 years who were posted<br>in the Departments of General Medicine and Surgery before and after 3 months of their clinical posting. Deep and surface<br>learning approach main scores were determined.<br>Results: The majority (87.1%) of medical students in our study had a deep learning approach, and there was no change after<br>their clinical posting. There was no significant difference in the deep approach and surface approach main scores and subscale<br>scores before and after their clinical posting. The majority felt that studying was more satisfying (94%), interesting (92%), and<br>exciting (76%) and they felt like working harder (75%) and learning more deeply (82%) because they had seen patients. The<br>majority agreed that after seeing patients, they try to understand concepts (94%), relate new to previous knowledge (84%),<br>logically analyze information (86%), and study out of curiosity (91%) to master the subject (84%).<br>Conclusion: The majority of medical students had a deep approach to learning before starting their clinical posting and perceived<br>that seeing patients during their clinical posting had a positive effect on their learning, although no statistically significant<br>difference was found in learning approach scores.</p> Suzanne Maria D’cruz, Navin Rajaratnam Copyright (c) 2018 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC STUDY http://galaxyjeevandhara.com/index.php/ijss/article/view/1808 Fri, 15 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0000