Study of the Level of Awareness of Chronic Kidney Diseases among Diabetic Patients in Al-Ahsa Governorate, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (Cross-Sectional Study)
Introduction: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is one of the most common complications affected by diabetes mellitus (DM) in the world. It is a life-threatening complication in diabetic patients, and this will cause end-stage renal disease in developed countries. No study has been done before in the eastern region of Saudi Arabia. Making it important to do such kind of studies.
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to determine the level of awareness of CKD among diabetic patients in Al-Ahsa Governorate, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Al-Ahsa Governorate of Saudi Arabia, from March 2017 to December 2017. The researchers have done the questionnaire on 372 individuals of diabetic patients. Data analysis was done using SPSS program version 24.
Results: The minimum age of the participants was 19, and the maximum age was 65. More than half of them are in the age group (40–70). The number of male participants is 107 (28.8) and females 265 (71.2). The mean score of the level of awareness was 7.5 ± 3.2. However, the number of the participants who know that DM can cause CKD are 196 (52.7.9%). 100 (26.9%) were not aware of the association between CKD and uncontrolled diabetes. 76 (20.4%) of the participants did not hear about CKD. However, the majority of Saudi populations were not aware of the association between CKD and uncontrolled diabetes. We summarize our findings that our patients had poor attitude and knowledge of awareness compared to the others, which emphasize the needs for implementation of awareness campaigns, future public health, and educational interventions.
Conclusion: CKD is common and growing problem worldwide but not adequately recognized problem among diabetic population in Al-Ahsa Governorate, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. As there is lack of awareness among Saudi diabetic population about this problem, there is a strong need for health and educational intervention programs to increase the knowledge level and awareness about this disease as well as the necessity of screening and periodic follow-up programs.
Mellitus. Report of a WHO Consultation, 9-11 November, 2005. Geneva,
Switzerland: WHO; 2006. p. 1-3.
2. Al Rasheed R, Al Adel F. Diabetic retinopathy: Knowledge, awareness and
practices of physicians in primary-care centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
Saudi J Ophthalmol 2017;31:2-6.
3. Alwakeel JS, Al-Suwaida A, Isnani AC, Al-Harbi A, Alam A. Concomitant
macro and microvascular complications in diabetic nephropathy. Saudi J
Kidney Dis Trans 2009;20:402.
4. Liu Z, Fu C, Wang W, Xu B. Prevalence of chronic complications of Type 2
diabetes mellitus in outpatients-a cross-sectional hospital based survey in
urban China. Health Qual Life Outcomes 2010;8:62.
5. Tuttle KR, Bakris GL, Bilous RW, Chiang JL, De Boer IH, Goldstein-
Fuchs J, et al. Diabetic kidney disease: A report from an ADA consensus
conference. Diabetes Care 2014;37:2864-83.
6. Bojestig M, Arnqvist HJ, Hermansson G, Karlberg BE, Ludvigsson J.
Declining incidence of nephropathy in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.
N Engl J Med 1994;330:15-8.
7. Hallan SI, Dahl K, Oien CM, Grootendorst DC, Aasberg A, Holmen J, et al.
Screening strategies for chronic kidney disease in the general population:
Follow-up of cross sectional health survey. BMJ 2006;333:1047.
8. Mogensen CE, Christensen CK. Predicting diabetic nephropathy in insulindependent
patients. N Engl J Med 1984;311:89-93.
9. Tuttle KR, Stein JH, De Fronzo RA. The natural history of diabetic
nephropathy. Semin Nephrol 1990;10:184-93.
10. Plantinga LC, Tuot DS, Powe NR. Awareness of chronic kidney disease
among patients and providers. Adv Chronic Kidney Dis 2010;17:225-36.
11. Roomizadeh P, Taheri D, Abedini A, Mortazavi M, Larry M, Mehdikhani B,
et al. Limited knowledge of chronic kidney disease and its main risk factors
among Iranian community: An appeal for promoting national public health
education programs. Int J Health Policy Manage 2014;2:161-6.
12. Waterman AD, Browne T, Waterman BM, Gladstone EH, Hostetter T.
Attitudes and behaviors of African Americans regarding early detection of
kidney disease. Am J Kidney Dis 2008;51:554-62.
13. White SL, Polkinghorne KR, Cass A, Shaw J, Atkins RC, Chadban SJ,
et al. Limited knowledge of kidney disease in a survey of ausDiab study
participants. Med J Aust 2008;188:204-8.